The politics of society

Traditionally, politics and society were viewed as opposites. This separation is rooted in the origin of the word “politics”. In ancient Greece, “pólis” was used to describe the city, soon also the public coexistence in the city, in contrast to the domestic community. The distinction between politics vs. Society has been maintained at its core for centuries. However, it is more fruitful to look at politics and society from a systems-theoretical point of view: society as a whole is a social system in which other subsystems have developed. The political system is one of them. Systems sustain themselves by creating their own elements over and over again. Social systems, including the political system, consisting of communication. On the other hand, there are policies that need to be followed before advertising pokemon fire red cheats.

Politics and power

Power is a kind of feedback loop, meaning it arises where obedience can be assumed. The system of presupposing and applying power is self-generating and self-sustaining, it is an autopoietic system. To do this, power must be continuously demonstrated, both through symbols and through the actual exercise of power. Because power is not stable, but transitory; it disintegrates quickly if it is not shown. Power, including political power, is influencing the actions of others.

There are three types of influence

Absorption of uncertainty: Whoever has power releases others from their duty to make decisions and to bear responsibility.

Positive sanctions: The prospect of positive consequences increases the willingness to obey. These include cash payments, but also such abstract things as gratitude or a higher reputation.

Negative sanctions: They are typical of the medium of power. In contrast to positive sanctions, negative sanctions usually do not have to be carried out – the threat alone is sufficient to exert pressure.

So power functions, among other things, on the basis of threatened negative sanctions. This also explains why it has to be demonstrated again and again and why it needs legitimation. The best means of power is physical violence – also in the state. As a rule, the ruler does not exercise this physical violence himself. He only makes the decision when and how violence is used; the performers are Police or military. Political power and violence therefore only enable the development of a differentiated social system.